Finally, from the DNA of one cell, we can clone an animal, a plant or perhaps even a human being. But what is DNA? Where is it found?
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In this article, we will look deep into the structure of DNA and explain how it makes itself and how it determines all of your traits. First, let's look at how DNA was discovered. Nucleic acids were originally discovered in by Friedrich Meischer, a Swiss biologist, who isolated DNA from pus cells on bandages. Although Meischer suspected that nucleic acids might contain genetic information, he could not confirm it. In , Oswald Avery and colleagues at Rockefeller University showed that DNA taken from a bacterium, Streptococcus pneumonia , could make non-infectious bacteria become infectious.
Definition of DNA - NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute
These results indicated that DNA was the information-containing molecule in the cell. The information role of DNA was further supported in when Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase demonstrated that to make new viruses, a bacteriophage virus injected DNA, not protein, into the host cell see How Viruses Work for more information.
Mitochondria are structures within cells that convert the energy from food into a form that cells can use. Human DNA consists of about 3 billion bases, and more than 99 percent of those bases are the same in all people.
DNA testing can share all your family secrets. Are you ready for that?
The order, or sequence, of these bases determines the information available for building and maintaining an organism, similar to the way in which letters of the alphabet appear in a certain order to form words and sentences. Each base is also attached to a sugar molecule and a phosphate molecule.
Together, a base, sugar, and phosphate are called a nucleotide.